Industrial Revolution

The term “Industrial Revolution” – here onwards “IR” describes the period in which there was a gradual shift of improving the process of manufacturing and distributing goods. This document discusses various phases on Industrial Revolution. For impacts of 1st Industrial revolution on our society, and possible impacts of AI revolution on our society and jobs in future, check From 1st Industry Revolution to 4th Industry Revolution

First Industrial Revolution

The First IR took place from the 18th to 19th centuries in Europe and America. It was a period when mostly agrarian, rural societies became industrial and urban. The iron and textile industries, along with the development of the steam engine, played central roles in the IR. For more details, check Industry Revolution and its impact on society.

IR gave birth to:

Second Industrial Revolution

The Second IR took place between 1870 and 1914, just before World War I. It was a period of growth for pre-existing industries and expansion of new ones, such as steel, oil and electricity, and used electric power to create mass production. Major technological advances during this period included the telephone, light bulb, phonograph, motor car and the internal combustion engine.

Third Industrial Revolution

The Third IR, or the Digital Revolution, refers to the advancement of technology from analog electronic and mechanical devices to the digital technology available today. The era started during the 1980s and is ongoing. Advancements during the Third IR include the personal computer, the internet, and information and communications technology (ICT).

Fourth Industrial Revolution

Fourth IR (4IR) builds on the Digital Revolution. It is marked by emerging technology breakthroughs in a number of fields, including robotics, artificial intelligence, blockchain, nanotechnology, quantum computing, biotechnology, The Internet of Things, 3D printing and autonomous vehicles.


How did 1st IR impacted our society and the life of working class, and what possible impact can 4th IR have on our society and jobs in future, check From Industry Revolution to AI Revolution.